The Jemez Indians established the Pueblo of Giusewa (pronounced Gee-say-wah) among the hot springs of Jemez Valley around AD 1350.
It was a multistory village which may have contained as many as 1,000 rooms. Giusewa was first visited by Spanish in 1541. Later, in 1598, Franciscan missionaries came to convert the Jemez People to Christianity. By 1621, the priests along with their Native American converts had constructed San José de los Jémez Mission. However, the missionary effort ultimately failed. Brought on by suppression of the Native religion and a devastating drought, the Jemez joined the Pueblo Revolt on August 10, 1680. This culminated in the removal of the Spanish from northern New Mexico for the next 12 years.